Posts by finolamoss

Solicitor qualified 1981.Weightmans, Liverpool. College of Law Chester Senior Lecturer 1981-89, Litigation, Evidence, Employment and Consumer, Conveyancing and Landlord and Tenant. Law Society examiner in above topics, Senior Lecturer Sheffield Hallam University 1993- 2012. Equity and Trusts, Land and Evidence. Commissioned writer for New Law Journal, Solicitors Journal and Expert Witness Institute Publications on Forced Adoption, Child Protection, Care and Care Court System, Experts in Criminal and Care Courts, Charity Law and State Power. Blog 2014- on autistic daughter Mental and Disability Care, Mental Health Act, Mental Capacity Act , Power of State. Born and bred in Liverpool. Married, 2 daughters 15, 18, One autistic, abused by the state, and a huge present, and future cash cow. Email

US Acadia Group pay 1.28bn for The Priory Group .NHS billons on Behavioural services feed USA Venture Capital Profit.

US Acadia, bought the Priory Group for 1.28 bn last year and now owns half of all mental/behavioural services in England..

95% of The Priory Group income is now public money.In 2015/16 it received over 250 million of NHS funds.

Joey Jacobs owns Acadia Behavioural Healthcare Services and earned 8,241,847 dollars in salary, bonus and shares in 2014.

Tom Riall, Formally chief executive of Serco, with all its known financial scandals, was made CO of the Priory Group and is also a Director of 166 other learning disability companies including the Affinity Trust now Affinity Group and effectively controls most mentally disabled residential groups. His net worth is 1.66 billion

Due to five formal notices served by Coroners because of deaths in the Priory Group Riall moved on to My Dentist.

Does this sound like a cash strapped NHS ?? no it is a bonanza for private venture capital .

No competition, as all is owned and controlled by one company for max profit

Only those hospitals and residential units owned by US Acadia are funded by NHS England through its CCGs as the only ‘specified providers’ under the Health and Social Care Act.

The system is fed by no support in parent’s home due to LA cuts, but this is just the excuse, for a policy that feeds venture capital regardless of its service.

The rest of this lucrative behavioural industry is also privately owned by United Health Services who own Cygnet Hospitals and Cambian Group including NHS CAMHS groups. UHS previous executive was Simon Stevens who now heads NHS England which controls all CCG funding.

As we have seen there are no independent or indeed any investigations into service user deaths and even when there are and they last 18 months like Thomas Rawnsley’s death all is whitewashed and does not affect the service provider so there is no accountability as shown by recent death reviews for all our NHS billions.

via US Acadia Group pay 1.28bn for The Priory Group .NHS Mental feeds Venture Capital Profit.


Autism and Deprivation of Liberty: The Shocking Tale of What the State is Doing

In addition to the thousands sectioned under the MHA, earning £13,000 a year from our cashstrapped NHS mainly now in private venture capital backed NHS hospitals, we also have hundreds of thousands held in various institutions – community living, nursing homes under Court of protection Mental Capacity Act Deprivation of Liberty Orders for life.

All their hearings, orders and services are secret on the grounds of confidentiality and their family is gagged from even mentioning them or their services and life .

At the time this article was published in 2014, it was estimated there would be 94,000 Dols LA applications, but in fact in 2015/16, there were 195,840. In a time of austerity this represents an average of over £6,000 per week payment for care from the NHS/LA with far more paid for ASD/LD deemed complex.

Dols allow every decision food, relationships, outtings, medication to be made by the for profit provider in what they think is in the  service user’s ‘best interests.

The deemed ‘incapable’ nor their family have any rights or even court representation as the COP appoints an Official solicitor to represent the incapable, funded by the state, but he invariably finds a person’s best interests is that chosen by the care provider.

Provided the service provider believe they are acting reasonably in a persons best interests they can effectively do what they like to  the service user for life and are not liable for their services under s5 MCA.

The LA/NHS who commissioned the services and would be liable if the services were inadequate oversee the services with a scant prescribed inspections from the CQC.

And the government has made it now much easier for LAs/nhs  to obtain DOLs which they are renaming LIBERTY  Safeguards

Now the service providers via the CCGs will effectively control them and capture and control their own customers.

Planet Autism Blog

Deprivation of Liberty The Government created an Autism Act in 2009 for adults on the autistic spectrum.  Then it created an adults Autism Strategy (ironically entitled “Leading Fulfilling and Rewarding Lives”) in 2010, to remind authorities that there was an Autism Act and that they were meant to be adhering to it – just spelling it out sort of thing.  When people kept on reporting that things still weren’t being done as they were supposed to, despite the Act and the Strategy, the Government next created their “Think Autism” Strategy in 2014 just to remind them again (just how dense can these people be!).  What is all this achieving?  The Government can hold it’s hands up and say, “Look, we made a law for you, we did our bit, look how seriously we are taking this.”  …We all know what the term ‘lip service’ means though.

Some autistic adults are getting deflected…

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Police now the only NHS mental support in crisis.MHA amendments 2017. Removal for ‘Treatment’. Private Mental’s Ultimate Harvesting Tool.

It appears the police are being used as the only mental health emergency help for those suffering from mental issues, despite the extra millions the government have ploughed into NHS Health and Social Care Trusts, many like Sheffield Health and Social Care are now private companies making profit out of our NHS.
It has been reported that NHS trusts do not have crisis teams and are merely contacting the police when a person is in mental health crisis.
The police, together with an independent mental health act Practioner are then assessing that person under detainment by s117 MHA in a place of safety, and generally referring them to private for profit NHS mental hospitals anywhere that has a bed for which up to £13,000 a week is being paid.


Here is a report of one such NHS patient in crisis of what happened to them
I particularly enjoyed hearing a recording recently of a call to a CrisisTeam by a patient who chose to record their own call ‘for training and monitoring purposes’ and it involved a person asking for someone to talk to as they recognised their own relapse and having tried various distraction techniques of their own, before ringing. To say my gast was entirely flabbered as the nurse sought to quickly get rid of the call and ring 999 is to dramatically understate things: there was just NOTHING there to justify ringing the police. A person wanted to talk: it was bluntly (and rudely) refused and the actual words used by the patient seemingly ignored, the phone went down and the local police received a 999 call.

Is this now the mental support our NHS is offering and how can this help and improve mental health ?




An English man’s home is no longer his castle from Monday 11th December.

This historic bastion of common law refuge is weakened by Mental Health Act 2017 amendments.

As police can enter anyone’s home, be it tent or shed, and search for and remove an occupier to ‘a place of safety’ and provide any enforced ‘treatment’, if they suspect he is ‘ suffering from a mental disorder.

And he can then be detained interminably under the MHA or MCA .

This may seem beyond belief but it is terrifyingly true.

It gives the  Nanny State and private mental health services the ultimate power.

The Mental Health Act s135 allows such an ultimate, disproportionate interference with a person’s human rights- the removal of his legal competence ,

‘with a warrant’ obtained form a magistrate without notice,  if there

‘is reasonable cause to suspect that a person believed to be suffering from…

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Autistic/Learning Disabled Adults are never allowed to remain or live with their families. Why ? Universal Health Services own Cambian and Cygnet. What do we know about them?

For those thousands of autistic/ learning disabled holed up, illegally in ATUs for ‘treatment’ the grim, unfaceable reality is, that they will never be free. And their families will never be able to see them again for life without the control, supervision and constant threat of a mental hospital for life.

THIS is the future fate of all ASD/LD, as they are the ultimate Health and Social Care Cashcows.

And Acts like the Mental Capacity Act, Mental Health Act and more recently the Health and Social Care Act 12 have been passed to ensure their fate.

The plan for the LA/ASD is simple, they are harvested to ATUs all over the UK on a commercially aware basis but only to private venture capital backed NHS ATUs, mainly owned by US multinationals UHS or Acadia.

Who are paid up to £13,000 a week by the NHS CCGs under HSCA, as the private ATU is the only ‘specialised provider’. so they remain as long as possible as shown by the 7 days of action campaign .

To be discharged, they have to have an agreed care package from their local CCG/LA, this generally can only be to a community living unit in their local area usually owned by the very Company, who owns the ATU from where they are being discharged, as this again is the only ‘specialised provider’ under HSCA.

133 million has been given to LAs to facilitate their move to these ‘community living’ units under the lie of them going home and additional CARE LA funding is available to pay these local providers, as on average supposedly because of deemed complex needs the ASD/LD can command over £8,000 a week for life, so they are a hugely lucrative commodity.


UHS PIC 1e275a4f3c2d6020578c358a360dd8f9

UHS own more than 200 psychiatric facilities in the USA and admitted nearly 450,000 patients last year.

UHS now run nearly half of UK NHS mental health services, owning both the ‘community living’ provision of the Cambian group and the Cygnet group

Health and Social Care Foundation Trusts commission UHS services for Clinical Commissioning Groups, as the only ‘qualified providers’ under the Health and Social Care Act 2012.

Nearly a fifth of NHS England’s budget is already spent on mental health services.

In July NHS England named  its new adult/CAMHS care models to Cygnet hospitals just 10 days after some rated inadequate by CQC.

Priory Group are the main other providers. See here.

The inadequate/abusive mental services despite all media propaganda is not a shortage of money.

Since last year all new inpatient admissions to private hospitals.

And mainly enforced under MHA section, or MCA ‘incapacity’.

And unlike in…

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Dying for Profit

R-762328-1414847440-1947.jpeg dying

A depressing month heralded in a shocking NHS Learning Disabled Mortality Review, forced by the revelation our NHS investigates 1 % of the deaths of the Learning Disabled in their care, two Inquests of autistics concluding ‘natural causes’, and another is likely, from the findings of an NHS England’s investigation into Thomas Rawnsley’s death.

With the inevitability of even fewer inquests and more ‘natural causes’ deaths by the introduction this month of  certification of deaths by Medical Examiners, rather than Coroners.

We have few investigations, let alone independent ones, into those dying in state care, despite ever increasing deaths, and the fact that back in 2013, MENCAP reported 37% died due to inadequate health care at a rate of 1,200 a year.

So state ‘care’ is becoming evermore unaccountable, even for death, and evermore expensive, with nearly a fifth of our total NHS and care budget spent on it, and almost all care and treatment for the autistic and learning disabled is now provided by monopoly venture capital backed private providers with an overriding duty to provide ever more profit.

And no one is even commenting on, let alone doing anything about the quality of these public/private services costing billions, even if they result in the death of a service user.

NHS England didn’t want anyone to see its commissioned University of Bristol Learning Disability Mortality Review Annual Report 2017,so publication was held back from November to the day after the local elections and the day before a long bank holiday.

NHS refused any press conference or media comment and Jeremy Hunt disappeared from Parliament before he could be asked a question on the report.

Such is Ministerial and NHS Responsibility

Only 1131 deaths were referred to the programme because of lack of resources,  despite the NHS having enough money to pay £13,000 a week for the treatment they resulted from, and again through lack of funding, only 103 of these deaths were actually reviewed with no indication of when the remaining 1028 deaths would be investigated.

Of the 103 reviews, 13% of deaths were found by the review team to be down to:
Neglect or abuse.
Organisational dysfunction.
Delays in care or treatment.
Gaps in service provision.

The many inquests into the deaths of autistic and learning disabled including Danny Tozer, Oliver McGowan, Connor Sparrowhawk & Richard Handley and yet to be held Thomas Rawnsley are horrific testaments to the Review’s findings..

No wonder the government removed the right to life jury and Inquest from those held under MCA Dols.

So what was the NHS’s reply to the reports findings ?

We welcome this interim report, the first of its kind in the world.
( A black piece of PR as no other country has been forced to commission such a report because  disabled in state ‘care’ are dying for profit. So badly in fact, our government has been forced to issue annual death reviews)

These early lessons will feed into hospital and community services work including early detection of symptoms of sepsis and pneumonia prevention, constipation and epilepsy where there is significant progress.

( Surely hospitals and community NHS paid millions – up to 13,000 a week – should not be used until such basics exist within them. Such basics shockingly deemed ‘early lessons’ )

The NHS go on to say another 1.4m more will be spent this year so that those responsible locally as well as the University of Bristol and NHS HQ can ramp up the speed and number of reviews.

So 1.4 million for more death reviews, meetings and bureaucracy and private local profit, with no accountability or compensation for victims and their families.

But still very cheap , in comparison to the billions that would have had to be paid out, if we had USA accountability for patient care with Medicare representation in court.

Or even if we had Coroners Inquests with Juries- 2 millions being paid out in compensation to Connor Sparrowhawk and another.,

So shouldn’t our government and Court of Protection comply with its own laws and ensure that those held in MHA/ NHS treatment or MCA residential care do not die ?

And ensure that our public money is not wasted on unsupervised, lacking
the basics, proven unsafe and inadequate public/ privatised provision ?.

Does our government, NHS and courts not have a duty to protect our most vulnerable in and from state care ?

Unless the profit motive is removed from state care/treatment more will, and will be allowed to die, making that profit with impunity..

There can be no saving of lives by Carillion style bankruptcies just less culpability and more public money wasted.

Babies for Sale- The Adoption Profit Motive

baby sellers

The stuff of barbarism- a baby torn from a loving mother for ever.

But it’s just another day for the Social worker walking briskly towards a ward, baby carrier on arm to whisk a baby to a stranger approved by the state.

Job done, baby protected, agency paid.

How more easily could at least £27,000 be earned than from the finding of parents for a new born baby ?

A distasteful impersonal ‘transaction’ sanctioned by law, happening daily in UK hospitals only.

The horror unseen, the damage unknown, the social obscenity not even discussed.

The mother presumed such a monster her own baby needs protection and so deserves her fate

But does she ?

Her husband failed to attend an Anger Management Course because of LA cuts, she’s has a mental disorder, drug/drink issues or learning disability or simply had relationships with violent men in the past or herself has just left care and is homeless.
Those most in need are those whose babies are most ‘at risk’- easy targets, easy money.

This is child protection, now outsourced by LAs to corporations worth millions .

By 2016 2,700 babies were being removed each year.
After those under one month taken into care had already increased from 1,400 in 2010 to 2,013 in 2013 (years to 31 March)

John Hemming here argues why this is happening and produces evidence that this has not helped child protection by decreasing the number of child deaths, abuse and neglect

And it is  illegal under Human Rights and EU law which states that when taking a child into care, the European courts are prepared to give domestic authorities a wide margin of appreciation and this is not normally in breach of Art 8, P, C and S v The United Kingdom [2002] 35 EHRR 31, as
“a temporary measure to be discontinued as soon as circumstances allow,” but in the UK it is forever.

Nothing illustrates the greed, ruthlessness and efficiency of our child protection system more than the story of Alessandra Pacchieri ,an Italian citizen, who whilst staying in a Stansted Hotel on a Ryanair training course rang the police when she had a panic attack, they contacted her parents who were looking after her two children and were told she had a bipolar condition and had not been taking her medication because she was pregnant.

Police arrived in her hotel room offering to take Alessandra to a hospital to check out her baby, but instead used their s136 MHA power to take her to ‘a place of safety’ where she was mentally assessed and sectioned under the MHA.

Ten weeks later, without informing Alessandra, the local health authority obtained an order enabling doctors to deliver her baby girl by caesarean, whilst Essex County Council simultaneously began care proceedings enabling her baby to be born into care and adopted.

Alessandra was anesthetised and awoke to find her baby removed from her womb and her life forever, despite a friend and the grandparents offering to care for the baby and Alessandra promising to take her medication.

The Telegraph publication of this horror and the political disgust of Italy, forced Sir James Munby to comment it was time to “call a halt” to the tendency to apply for adoption orders based on “sloppy” or non-existent assessment of alternatives which would not irrevocably break-up families.
But little appears to have changed.

So what in 2009 saw many childrens Charities diversify into adoption.?

An Intergency Adoption Fee in 2008 was payable by the government to an agency at
12,660 for an adoptive family approved by another LA (from 1 April 2007 to 31 March 2008)
£19,889 for families from Voluntary Adoption Agency
with an additional fee of £3,315 to cover post adoption services (the post adoption support module).
London LAs and VAAs are also able to charge an additional 10% London weighting

In 1978 the fee had been £3,370 for each child adopted
But note not for infants under 18 months presumably thought to easy to place to warrant a fee.

In order to protect the fee against inflation this fee was then linked to 50% of point 19 on the social work salary scale, increasing automatically each year in line with nationally negotiated salary increases.

Over the years, the scheme has been regularly reviewed. Each major review has been dominated by concerns that the fee has not accurately reflected the expenditure incurred by the voluntary sector.

And in 2013 the fee of £13,000 per adoption paid to LAs was increased to the.Voluntary adoption agencies rate of £27,000 to facilitate adoptions

£27,000 for placing 1 child 2. £43,000 for placing 2 siblings in 1 adoptive family 3. £60,000 for placing 3 siblings in 1 adoptive family 4. £68,000 for placing 4 siblings in 1 adoptive family 5. £80,000 for placing 5 or more siblings in 1 adoptive family

And then in addition, it appears in 2015 the government began subsidising the inter-agency fee by way of a grant for all children falling into the ‘harder to place’4 category in 8 July 2015.
£27,000 for placing 1 child
£43,000 for placing 2 siblings in 1 adoptive family
£60,000 for placing 3 siblings in 1 adoptive family
£68,000 for placing 4 siblings in 1 adoptive family
£80,000 for placing 5 or more siblings in 1 adoptive family

For those deemed ‘harder to place children’.

It would appear easy for commercially aware adoption corporations to claim these additional fees, as the government criteria for the harder to adopt catagory could potentially cover most children in care, as these babies/children only need to be ‘suspected of’ a Learning disabilities/difficulties, Special Health Needs, Behaviour problems, Developmental delay, Attachment difficulties Parental learning difficulties Prenatal exposure to alcohol or drugs Parental mental health issue

So if they have vulnerable parents, their learning disability, mental disorder or substance abuse issues would automatically put their children at risk of disability/developmental delay and deemed ‘harder to adopt’ and worth far more money to an adoption agency.

If my reading of the payment as an additional £27,000 is correct, that would mean an adoption agency would be paid a whopping £54,000 for a learning disabled/ abuse user’s baby/child as it would be deemed ‘hard to adopt’.

And it appears this money can be claimed even without an actual adoption, as from voluntary adoption guidance it appears the first third is non refundable, justified by the fact that many adopters do not go on to take another placement and those that do will need to be re-assessed

In addition even the second third is usually non refundable also, but there may be some situations when a placement breaks down during introductions, or at a very early stage where both agencies decide they wish to come to an agreement based on the particular circumstances e.g. short duration of placement, limited travel and staff time involved in a local placement.

Surely this laissez- faire attitude to payment of huge sums of public money is wasteful  and anathema to speedy stable adoptions.

A comment in the internet from an adoptive parent from an agency, seems to confirm that it is not necessarily the hard to adopt that are placed with agencies;

I just no longer believe the idea that if you are approved by a Voluntary Agency you have to wait ages for a match and then it’s with an older or more complex child. There were profiles of tiny babies sent to us, many of them’.

Plans have been introduced for the development of Regional Adoption Agencies to replace some of the 189 individual local authority and voluntary adoption agencies which will make finding adopters easier yet there appear no plans to decrease inter-agency fees and grants.

In Northern Ireland, an agreement exists between the five Health and Social Care Trusts that a contribution towards the total cost of recruiting and assessing prospective adopters is paid by Trusts where children are placed with prospective adopters approved by other Trusts.

A fee of only £6,000 is paid by the placing Trust for a single child and an additional £2,000 for the first sibling placed at the same time and a further £1,000 for any other siblings placed. In the event that a sibling is subsequently placed with the same adopters, a further fee of £3,000 is charged to the placing Trust.
Despite this fee being less than a quarter of the rest of the UK, the Northern Ireland adoption rates are approximately 4.13% to England’s 5.98%.
(successful adoptions from the care population being 120 adopted from Care population 2016/17 2900 compared with 4350 in England out of a care population of 72,670)
So merely throwing money at adoption appears to increase agency profits but not adoption rates.

And the proof of the pudding is successful outcomes for these children and a decrease in actual abuse but where are these measured ?

It appears even adoption breakdowns when these children are forced to re enter care are not being properly monitored.

See here the statistics for number of forced adoptions their age and sex!/vizhome/UKEnglandWalesForcedAdoptionsChildAge/Blatt1

Watch this film taken by a mother breast feeding her baby in her own home at night when 4 PCs arrived demanded entry at common law to do a welfare check of a child to save life and limb and then insisted on removing her baby because they said she had concealed a pregnancy. Terrifying power of the state to remove children/babies for profit


Autism Bewareness- UK’s 32 billion a year Cashcows.


This is autism awareness week and the joys of an autism diagnosis are proclaimed with a study of 750,000 people that shows a tenth of the UK might be autistic.

A new Channel 4 documentary asks, ‘Are You Autistic?’: we speak to two of its stars

This Illustrates  autism is definitely not a mental disorder but a difference of behaviour, thinking and sensitivity, and was merely a ‘neurological condition’ until Parliament made it a mental disorder by placing it in the MHA ten years ago to facilitate the sectioning and detainment of autistics in mental hospitals. .

If one in ten of the UK have autistic traits all this shows is that autism is an intrinsic part of a person’s personality and way of viewing the world which can’t be treated and has to be lived with and accepted but can lead to exceptional talents.

But why is our establishment hell bent on diagnosing people leading normal lives and insisting, even with the genetic masking nature of an X chromosome, girls are being under diagnosed ?

Because Autism is the UK’s biggest Cashcow eating 32 billion a year of public money and a growth industry.

So who does this industry serve and what has been achieved for the autistic by lavishing nearly a third of the total NHS budget on them ?

10 years on from the Autism Act and billions spent, autistics and their families have less than nothing, no rights and no lives.

There is no support for their parents after 18, no schools after 16, no extra time with a GP, no adjustments in hospitals, no equipment in the family homes, no respite, no holidays, few day centres, no support in a crisis other than removal to a mental hospital for years and few professionals trained in autism.

Many autistic die before they reach 40, most are medicated, few live with their family, most are unemployed, most will never be allowed to parent, and few gain any decent educational qualifications, and few are even allowed to make their own decisions.

As I write, over 3,000 and increasing are holed up in mental hospitals miles from family for decades drugged to a stupor, suffering horrific physical and mental side effects.

As an autistic can earn up to £13,000 a week for venture capital owned private hospitals, so there is no incentive to end their ‘treatment’ and more hospitals are being built with NHS money to cash in on this bonanza, and public NHS are no longer allowed to admit ASD/LD.

The same companies UHS/Acadia that own the hospitals also own the ‘community living’ units the autistic are eventually discharged to and they can then and often are being MHA sectioned back to these UHS hospitals, so a dangerous conflict of interests exists, particularly as services are run for maximum profit.

Experts are giving evidence in the Court of Protection that autistics can only exist in the present so can’t foresee future risk and therefore automatically fail the MCA capacity test allowing the State removal of their every decision at 18.

Reducing them to a 24/7 institutionally guarded life, torn from family and friends, forcefully medicated, strapped in wheelchairs doomed to years of isolation and physical, emotional and psychological torture to provide the perfect commodities for maximum profit.

The Coalition Government announced a national investment in 2014/15 of £4.5million to deliver the objectives set out in their Autism strategy

But this strategy with its introduction of Education Health and Care Plans under the Children and Families Act 2014, and £ 433 million payment to implement the safeguarding provisions of the Care Act 2014 made matters worse.

Earlier intervention saw ever younger children written off as’ autistic’ medicated, excluded and taught in residential schools paid an average £200,000 per year per pupil and increasingly bought up by the same corporate monopolies- like USA Acadia and UHS, who owned the CAMHS and AMHS provision and mental hospitals, providing a very lucrative pathway ‘care’ from cradle to grave.

These autistic were not taught to traditional GCSE exams but to P- scales , regardless of their actual IQ as their intelligence was judged by their adeptive skills, learning difference and communication problems.

EHC statements included social care allowing autistic families to be monitored by social services making it easy to remove their autistic children to residential schools and enforce medication under care orders.

Here are the facts of a case that went to the LG Ombudsman where SWs removed a special needs child from school to foster carers without informing child or family

Fostering is now a multimillion pound private industry and from this case it appears foster carers are not even being monitored and children  put at grave risk in care.

Social Workers Are Still Visiting Schools In Secret – It’s Time To Stop It.

Further The Care Act imposed a duty on LAs to provide Carers and Family Assessments, but not to provide any support, which they do not do after 18, and these assessments can be used as evidence of safeguarding issues in the home to enable court orders to remove to institutions


Here is the sad story of how nearly two million spent on education, CAMHS, Courts, lawyers, CAFCASS, Care agencies. Social Services destroyed my autistic daughter and it is the story of many whose lives are destroyed by the greed of so many working for a system that cynically uses the autistic as a vehicle to transfer public money to private profit.

And let’s not forget autistic and Downs Syndrome Thomas Rawnsley, whose death and suffering in enforced institutional corporate care ordered by a court in his ‘best interests’, still remains unexplained and unseen.