Harmful History of Neuroleptics-antipsychotics


Preclinical Use

1883 Phenothiazines are developed as synthetic dyes.

1934 USDA develop phenothiazines as insecticides

1949 Phenothiazines shown to hinder rope-climbing in rats.

1950 Rhone Poulenc synthesizes chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine, for use as an anaesthetic.

Clinical History

1954 Chlorpromazine marketed in the US as Thorazine, found to induce symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.

1955 Chlorpromazine said to induce symptoms similar to encephalitis lethargica.

1959 First reports of permanent motor dysfunction linked to neuroleptics, later named tardive dyskinesia

1960 French physicians describe a potentially fatal toxic reaction to neurocepltics later named neurocelpetic malignant syndrome.

1962 California Mental Hygiene Department determines that chlorpromazine and other neuroleptics prolong hospitalisation.

1964 Neuroleptics found to impair learning in animals and humans.

1965 A one year follow up of NIMH collaborative study finds drug treated patients more likely than placebo patients to be rehospitalised .

1968 In a drug withrawal study NIMH find a direct relationship between relapse rates and dosage. The higher the dosage patients were on before withdrawal, the higher the relapse rate.

1972 Tardive dyskinesia is said to resemble Huntington’s disease, or ‘postencephalitic brain damage’

1974 Boston researchers report relapse rates are lower in pre- neuroleptic era. And drug treated patients were more likely to be socially dependent.

1977 A NIMH study, that randomised schizophrenic patients into drug and non drug, reports that only 35% of no drug patients, relapsed within a year of discharge, as opposed to 45% drugged patients.

1978 California investigator Maurice Rappaport reports markedly superior three year outcomes in patients treated without neuroleptics.

Only 27% of drug free patients relapsed in the three years following discharge, compared to 62% of drugged patients.

1978 Canadian researchers describe drug induced changes in the brain that make a patient more vulnerable to relapse, and term it ‘neuroleptic induced super sensitive psychosis’

1978 Neuroleptics found to cause 10% cellular loss in the brains of rats.

1979 Prevalence of tardive dyskinesia in drug treated patients is reported to range from 24% to 56%.

1979 Tardive dyskinesia found to be associated with cognitive impairment.

1979 Loren Mosher, chief of schizophrenia studies at NJMH, reports superior one and two year outcomes for Soteria patients treated without neuroleptics.

1980 NIMH researchers find an increase in ‘blunted effect’ and ‘emotional withdrawal’ in drug treated patients, and that neuroleptics do not improve ‘social and role performance’ in non relapsers.

1982 Anticholinergic medications used to treat Parkinsonian symptoms induced by neuroleptics reported ‘to cause cognitive impairment’

1985 Drug induced akathisia is linked to suicide.

1985 Case reports link drug induced akathisia to violent homicides

1987 Tardive dyskinesia is linked to worsening of negative symptoms, gait difficulties, speech impairment, psychological deterioration and memory deficits. They conclude it is both a ‘motor and dementing disorder’.

1992 World Health Organisation reports that schizophrenia outcomes are much superior in poor countries, where 16% of patients are kept continuously on neuroleptics.

The WHO reports that living in a developed nation is a ‘strong predictor’ that a patient will never recover.

1992 Researchers acknowledge that neuroleptics cause a recognisible pathology, which they name neuroleptic induced deficit syndrome .

In addition to Parkinson’s, akathsia, blunted emotions and tardive dyskinesia, patients treated with neuroleptics suffer from an ‘increased incidence of blindness, fatal blood clots, arrhythmia, heat stroke, swollen breasts,, leaking breasts, impotence, obesity, sexual dysfunction, blood disorders, skin rashers, seizures and early death’.

1994 Neuroleptics found to cause an increase in the volume of caudate region in the brain.

1994 Harvard investigators report that schizophrenia patients in the US, appear to have worsened over past 20 years, and are now no better than in first decades of 20th century.

1995 ‘Real World’ relapse rates for schizophrenia patients treated with neuroleptics said to be above 80% in the two years following hospital discharge, which is much higher than in the pre neuroleptic era.

1995 Quality of life’ in drug treated patients reported to be ‘very poor’

1998 MRI scans show that neurocelptics cause hypertrophy of caudate, putamen and thalamus,with the increase ‘associated with greater severity of both negative and positive symptoms’.

1998 Neuroleptics use is found to be associated with atrophy of cerebral cortex

1998 Harvard researchers conclude that ‘oxidative stress’ may be the process by which neuroleptics cause neuronal damage to the brain.

1998 Treatment with two or more neuroleptics is found to increase the risk of early death.

2000 Neuroleptics linked to fatal blood clots.

2003 Atypicals linked to an increased risk of obesity, hyperglycemia, diabetes and pancreatitis.

The Case against antipsychotic drugs: a 50 eat record of doing more harm than good.’
Robert Whitaker.


Despite this history, a cross party task force, recommends, the increased use of neuroleptics, and, considers that they have contributed to the‘transformation’ in mental health care in the last 50 years .

And, these drugs, have been  fed to the autistic, and learning disabled, off label, without monitoring from 7 in schools, and institutions for life.

Why ?





The Hell of Residential ‘Care’.What it feels like, and the shocking physical toll.


So what does it feel like, to be Thomas Rawnsley, or, any one, of the hundreds of thousands on state enforced polypharmacy?

This is their ‘community living’, their independence, their future, their life, until death.

Their ‘care’, costing the public purse on average £4,000 per week.

Without, the huge pharma bill.

As described by Thomas’ mother Pauline, in her, now removed, Facebook page, written, before Thomas died at 20, after just 2 years, in his MCA state enforced hell .

Imagine YOU are trapped in a unit or a home which is locked, you have no choice over when or what you eat, when or if you go out, what you wear, when you go to bed, when you watch TV, what you do minute to minute is dictated by people you have not chosen to ‘look after you’.

Your family are only allowed to visit occasionally.

Staff are present when you have family time.

You spend hours upon hours unmotivated and not stimulated. You are ignored and neglected.

The moment you try and get attention you are considered to be ‘acting out’’.

Consider the sheer willpower Thomas needed to ‘act out’.

Thomas, is receiving ever higher doses of anti psychotics, and, has been, for at least 6 years.

They block his dopamine, making it a Herculean feat, just to raise mental, let alone, physical opposition.

His body feels like lead, it takes a huge effort just to walk, or eat, yet, his spirit is strong, and still resists. And his reward ?

A trip to Lifeways/Cambian specialist hospital, their own private ATU, for even more drugging ‘treatment’.

The dopamine block, has removed any remote feelings of comfort, reward, and motivation, he tries to cling to, in his terrifying isolation.

He feels disengaged from events around him, demotivated, restless, anxious, and irritated, but, can hardly move.

He is trapped, in beyond mental anguish inside his own body.

This is how hundreds of thousands feel, today, and every day, for the rest of their, some might say, thankfully, short lives.

Now, add on the effect of high dosage anti depressants .

That cause desensitivity to seronin, removing, any possible feelings of happiness, wellbeing, or, hope.

Chronic, impotent, black depression, and aggression, worsening over time.

And the sedative effect of these drugs decease overtime, justifying, ever higher doses, increasing side effects, both physical and mental.

Producing perfect pharma cash cows.

Yet, this study in 2009, shows that the effect of antipsychotics on the learning disabled is little over the placebo.


The constant increased doses of serotonin, cause many physical side effects, as the function of serotonin, is largely unknown.

One is Osteopenia, as serotonin lowers mineral density in bones, and causes osteoporosis .

6% develop movement disorder- painful cramps and ticks, continual involuntary movements of mouth and tongue, often leading to Parkinsons; 10% anti cholinergic effects; 5% sedation; and 5% will develop weight from antipsychotics.

Together with chest infections, bouts of pneumonia, and weakening of the heart.

And, these conditions, worsen over time, exacerbated by ever higher drug doses.

The result- a drooling, mouth clicking, tongue and head rolling, pain racked body, spotlessly groomed, strapped into a wheelchair.

But, the most needed drug,  will not be administered, by their itinerant, prescribed, tick boxed ‘care’- pain relief.

The system does not factor in, pain.

How could pain be picked up on, or, distinguished from  behavioural/mental angst ?

And it is not looked for

As,  physical problems- impactions, cystitis, appendicitis, tooth/ head/ear ache, cancer, Parkinson’s, osteoporosis, will not even be picked up, let alone  treated.

How could they be ?

Our NHS facilities, can’t cope with normal patients, let alone, non compliant, DOLs/safeguarded ones.

And, they are far too costly, though £4,000 + a week, is spent and mainly profit, on their pharma containment.

Even NHS scans  to detect faecal impactions are no longer available at 18.

Is it any wonder, 3 have already died today, and will tomorrow.

Of ‘natural causes’, signed off mainly, by private profit ‘specialist doctors’.




The Scandal of the Polypharmacy of Autistic and Learning Disabled


In view of the Mental Health Taskforce’s Recommendations, and, private, monopoly, enforced, unaccountable residential care, being now, the only support, for the autistic and learning disabled, we must consider, the unaccountable, unjustifiable,  over use of pharmacology, within these residential settings, and, how this contributes to the 3 Learning Disabled a day, dying needlessly, including Thomas Rawnsley.


In July last year,a letter was sent to NHS England, by the National Clinical Director for Learning Disabilities, and The Chief Pharmacological Officer, supported by The Royal College of Nursing, The Royal College of Psychiatry, and The Royal Pharmacological Society.


It states as follows;

In December 2012, the Department of Health publication
“Transforming Care: A national response to Winterbourne View Hospital”

Stated that:

“7.31 We have heard deep concerns about the over-use of antipsychotic and antidepressant medicines.

Health professionals caring for people with learning disabilities, should assess and keep under review the medicines requirements for each individual ( who checks that they do and the requirements are in their best interests and what sanctions exist ?) to determine the best course of action for that patient, taking into account the views of the person wherever possible and their family and/or carer(s).

( this is practically impossible, as the autistic/LD have difficulty communicating, and are not listened to, if family are not cut out, frightened they will be, and carers are itinerant and prescribed. And none have any power over clinicians employed by care providers)

Services should have systems, and policies in place, for that patient to ensure that this ( the review or substance of its outcome ?) is done safely, and in a timely manner, and should carry out regular audits of medication prescribing and management, involving pharmacists, doctors and nurses”

(What use is an audit, if all professionals are employed and prescribed by care provider, and no central check on the audit of medication, and their is no independent voice and no sanction if no audit even ?).

When used appropriately, and where there is a clear diagnosis of, for example, psychosis, these medicines can contribute effectively to the treatment of people, including those with learning disability.

(Psychosis, is historically rare, but can and is being caused by antipsychotics , or, worse still diagnosed incorrectly, as with my daughter on repeating oral abuse, construed, as hearing voices. In any event how can LD/autistic communicate psychosis ?)

Medicines, such as anti convulsants are vital to controlling debilitating seizures. However, all these medicines have powerful effects, often with serious side effects.

So when they are used, a careful assessment of the risks and benefits must be undertaken. However, and worse of all, some of these medicines can be used wholly inappropriately, as a “chemical restraint” to control behaviour, in place of other more appropriate treatment options.

Unfortunately there is not much evidence to guide practice in this area.

Despite a very recent and thorough analysis of the evidence by NICE, it would appear that the limited evidence that does exist around adverse effects of antipsychotic treatment in this population reflect the concerns about use in adults with schizophrenia.

(So the LD/autistic are being medicated, with no evidence of risks/benefits to the LD/autistic, no guidance,  the only guidance being, for the schizophrenic).

The Maudsley Guideline1 reports on one very large systematic review which quantified risks and benefits of maintenance antipsychotics. The results described

1 Taylor D, Paton C, Kapur S. The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry – 12th edition. Wiley Blackwell
Publications Gateway Reference 03689

High quality care for all, now and for future generations below equate to the following for every 100 adult patients treated with an antipsychotic agent for schizophrenia:

– six will develop movement disorder; 10 will develop anti cholinergic effects; 5 will develop sedation; and 5 will develop weight gain.

Close links between the use of antipsychotics, stroke and mortality have been reported in patients with dementia

( For what benefit ? The profit from efficient care ?)

2,3. We do not know the extent to which we can extrapolate the findings of studies into side effects of antipsychotics in people with schizophrenia and people with dementia but they are not without risks and are likely to cause significant harm for some individuals with learning disability.

As a consequence of the deep concerns of inappropriate use of these medicines, NHS England gathered together a group of carers, health professionals, policy makers and others to develop together a programme of work aimed at understanding the scale and appropriateness of the use of antipsychotic, antidepressant, anxiolytic, hypnotic and antiepileptic medicines.

The group commissioned three pieces of work:
1.an examination of prescribing of these medicines in primary care by Public Heath England (PHE);
2. partnership working with six project sites in England to further understand process and pathways to test new ways of working by NHS Improving Quality (NHS IQ);

3.. an audit of Second Opinion Authorised Doctor information on use of medicines in people detained under the Mental Health Act by the Care Quality Commission (CQC).

Examination of primary care prescribing This work has identified a high level of inappropriate use of psychotropic drugs in people with learning disabilities.

The study used GP records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. This is a well-established system that collects comprehensive, anonymised, clinical data from a large number of general practices throughout the UK for research studies.

It covers roughly 8% of the population of England and the data it provides is considered to give a good representation of practice in England.

Among adults known to their GP to have learning disabilities, excluding only those in hospital as inpatients, on any average day, 17.0% were being prescribed antipsychotic drugs, 16.9% antidepressants, 7.1% drugs used in mania and hypomania, 4.2% anxiolytics, and 2.7% hypnotics 2.7%.

Nearly one third (29.5%) of all adults known to have learning disabilities were receiving one or more of these types of drug.

Banerjee S: The use of antipsychotic medication for people with dementia: Time for action. A report for the Minister of State for Care Services: Department of Health; November 2009.

Douglas I: Exposure to antipsychotics and risk of stroke: self-controlled case series study: BMJ 2008;337:a1227

These figures, particularly those for antipsychotics and antidepressants are much higher than the prevalence of psychotic conditions, or affective disorders, established from research studies and increase progressively with age.

(This is very worrying, per se, but even more so, when clinical trials, have shown antipsychotics cause psychosis, and exacerbate psychotic episodes, and cause serious physical side effects and death.)

58% of adults receiving antipsychotics and 32% of those receiving antidepressants had no relevant diagnosis recorded.

22.5% of prescriptions for antipsychotics included more than one drug in this class and 5.5% were for doses exceeding the recommended maximum.

Based on these figures the authors estimated, that on an average day in England, between 30,000 and 35,000 adults with a learning disability are being prescribed an antipsychotic, an antidepressant or both without appropriate clinical indications (psychosis or affective disorder). This is 16.2% of the adult population known to their GP as having a learning disability.

( That is huge amount of pharma profit, and neurological suppression, without any proven benefit or even justification)

Rates of prescribing to adults with autism were also high, though the pattern was less clear as numbers were much smaller. Prescribing of drugs acting on the central nervous system to children and young people with learning disabilities and autism was much less common but also had worrying features.

We recognise that these medicines are typically initiated by specialist doctors and only very rarely by general practitioners. Whilst the responsibility for prescribing lies with the practitioner who signs the prescription, it is critical that GPs and specialists work together, through shared care arrangements, to monitor and regularly review patients taking these powerful medicines.

(Specialist doctors, are now, almost exclusively employed, by the monopoly residential care providers, who also have their own specialist hospitals. They are employed, under strict codes of conduct, on a commercially aware basis, so have no professional independence. GPs and family are cut out)

A report of the study is published by PHE on the Learning Disabilities Team website (www.ihal.org.uk).

Pilot improvement project

This project examined medicines practices and related matters in six sites across England which provide care for people with learning disabilities. The staff at each site worked with experts from NHS IQ, carrying out a “deep dive” into their practice.

Whilst many examples of good practice were found, there were also some common themes for improvement. For example, patients, carers or families did not always know why medicines had been prescribed and there was evidence of inadequate communication. On the other hand, there was evidence of the benefits, for example multidisciplinary working, and in particular the deployment of clinical pharmacy expertise. The full report has been published by NHS IQ and can be found at http://www.nhsiq.nhs.uk/winterbourne.

Second Opinion Authorised Doctor information The CQC has access to data on medication prescribed to people with learning disabilities detained under the Mental Health Act (1983) and who require a second opinion for treatment with medication for mental health, under the provisions of that Act.

(As , all LD/autistic, are now being moved from public NHS detention, to local ‘community living’,  not under MHA section, but MCA DOLs/ best interests, so a second opinion authorisation will not be required.)

The data arise from the work of Second Opinion Appointed Doctors (SOADs) who provide a statutory safeguard for such patients.

(No  such safeguard  in private community MCA provision, none MHA).

SOADs visit the patient and explore the current and proposed treatment, certifying what is considered to be appropriate and reasonable in circumstances where the patient cannot or does not consent to it, discussing it with team members and the patient before reaching their conclusions.

The treatment plan is submitted to the CQC when the Second Opinion request is made by the provider clinician. These plans, comprising the types and doses of medication and the reasons given by the doctor for the prescription, together with information provided about the patient’s diagnosis, were compared with information and guidelines in the British National Formulary (BNF).

It must be recognised that the BNF is a guide, and may be departed from if there are sound reasons.

(Who checks ‘sounds reasons’ ? So, no check and no means of enforcement of safeguards ?).

Similarly, many of the medications used in learning disability and considered professionally appropriate may not be specifically licensed for this population and the indications described in the BNF may not cover applicability in this field.

This is because the research is relatively limited, and medication manufacturers do not commonly submit information on Learning Disability usage in their product licence application.

(So, it appears, even when licenced ie for psychosis. Short term severe behaviour, depression, there has  been no information on the usage of these drugs on LD/autistic to the licencing authority . This begs the questions, how do they know  the drugs benefits, and why are they being used. The learning disabled are being used as guinea pigs).

As a consequence such use may not be cited in the BNF.

As an example, autism is not a BNF-recognised indication for prescribing antidepressants, however it is one for which they are widely used according to the literature, though evidence of efficacy is limited.

(So why is such medication used, in view of serious side effects, particularly, long term, on high doses.?)

In this survey autism appeared to be a distinct reason for antidepressant use.

The survey identified 945 requests representing 796 individual patients across a 10 month period – some 10% of the total Second Opinion requests ( so not under MCA) submitted in that period. 2/3 were male, mean age 34 yrs. 53% were being treated by an NHS provider, 47% by an independent.

Over half of the prescriptions did not overtly match the accepted indications by reference to the diagnosis.

There is published work from specialists in learning disability giving detailed suggestions on medication applicability, however matching these against the data was outside the scope of this survey.

Private hospitals had a higher proportion of patients’ prescriptions featuring multiple simultaneous medications of similar type, and in higher doses, compared with NHS hospitals; it is not yet apparent whether this relates to differences in practice, or arises from commissioners referring different diagnostic and prognostic patient groups to different provider types.

In a significant number of cases medication appeared to be prescribed primarily to manage behaviour that was perceived as challenging rather than for symptoms of mental illness.

While the provider’s treatment rationale provided some clarification for medication use by expanding on the patient’s presentation, in general there was limited rationale offered for the entirety of the treatment plan, particularly when polypharmacy and high dosage was used.

The intervention of the SOAD made changes to the overall treatment plan in some 25% of cases, commonly by restricting the dose total or number of preparations permitted to be used.
The full report will be published by CQC in September.

(This can and only worsen, as all care provision is to be, in private local community living under employed professionals in specialist private hospitals.)

Next steps

( These do not appear to have happened ? Instead Mental Taskforce recommends more use of anti psychotics and antidepressants )

These three reports provide robust evidence of inappropriate use of powerful medicines in people with learning disabilities. This is not acceptable practice and must improve.

To address this we intend to build on the success of a call to action to reduce antipsychotics in dementia ( black boxed since 2012 anyway)  by applying a similar collaborative approach to reducing inappropriate use of these and other powerful medicines in people with Learning Disability.

This process begins on 17 July 2015. We have called an urgent action summit to bring together carers and family representatives, professionals, improvement experts and other key interested parties to agree the steps that need to be taken to reduce the inappropriate use of these medicines and improve this aspect of care in people with learning disabilities who are some of the most vulnerable people in our society. We will issue regular updates on this work and call upon your support in addressing this serious issue.

NICE guidance (NG11) http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/NG11 published in May 2015, offers guidance on appropriate alternative strategies and interventions.

(These are guidelines only ,and can, and are, being ignored, and, with care, now in a maximum profit industry, there is no regulation, control, enforcement or, even check, on the use of medication amounts and dosages on the autistic and LD.)

We have published guidance for those patients and their families and/or carers who may be worried about the medicines they or their loved one is receiving which can be found here.

(But parents, nor the autistic/LD, have any say in their enforced MCA medication for life.).

Yours faithfully

Dr Dominic Slowie, Dr Keith Ridge CBE National Clinical Director for Learning Disability Chief Pharmaceutical Officer

Five months before this letter was sent, we had the death of Thomas Rawnsley, still today being investigated, and many more deaths in St Andrews, Northampton.


How, and, will, the government, make private residential providers, accountable for their use of drugs on our most vulnerable, not mentally ill, autistic and learning disabled ?

Not likely if their Mental Health Task force is promoting them.


The Antidepressant Scandal- Effect on Mind and Body.


The medication of depression, is justified by the belief, in an unproven theory, that depression, is caused by seronergic neurons, releasing too little serotonin into the synaptic gap, making the serotonegic pathways underactive.

Antidepressants, purport to bring serotonin levels up to ‘normal’


But, a normal level of serotonin is unknown, and, there is no scientific evidence that depression, is in fact caused by a serotonin imbalance.

So what will increasing serotonin via antidepressants, do to our brain ?

And, as serotonin acts, in, as yet unknown ways, on different parts of our infinitely complex brain, on a person’s bodily functions ?

In the same way, as anti psychotics, change the pathology of the brain, and make it super sensitive to dompamine, causing psychosis, anti depressants increase serotonin, triggering pathological changes to the serotonergic system, which actually causes and/or worsens depression.

Prior to being medicated, a ‘depressed’ person, has no known chemical imbalance, anti depressants, then increase the level of serotonin in the brain, by stopping its normal removal from the synapses.

This triggers a cascade of changes, and several weeks later, which is why, it take weeks, for the medication to kick in, the serotonergic pathway is operating in a very abnormal way.

To compensate for the fact, the serotonin reuptake channels are blocked ,the presynaptic neuron produces more serotonin

After a few weeks, the saturation of increased serotonin exacerbated by blocked removal from the synapses, causes the postsynaptic neurons to become desensitised to serotonin.

And, then this drug induced neuropathology, appears to cause depression, as clinical trials have shown antidepressants, worsen, depressive epitodes


And this is also borne out, by the depression epidemic in the USA, the escalation of which, co insides with the increased use of antidepressants. .

In 1955, 38,200 were in mental hospitals due to depression, today, a major depressive disorder, is the leading cause of disability in the USA , affecting 15 million adults, and in 2008, the John Hopkins School of Public Health reported, that 58% of this group were ‘severely impaired’.

In addition, to causing depression, anti depressants cause a multitude of side effects, including aggression, agitation,suicidal thoughts, sexual dysfunction, suppression of REM sleep, muscle tics, fatigue, emotional blunting- no highs or lows- apathy, memory impairment, problem solving difficulties, loss of creativity, and learning difficulties.


So all this physical and mental damage is caused for what benefit ?

None, that by NICE standards is ‘clinically significant’.

Pre Prozac, the NIMH reviewed the old antidepressants- monamine oxidase inhibitors MAOIs and tricyclics, and found, the ‘more stringently controlled the study, the lower the improvement rate reported for a drug’.

In well controlled studies, 61% of drug related patients improved versus 46% of placebo patients.

This minimal efficacy, led researchers to wonder, if the placebo response, rather than the drug, accounted for small improvement.

They conducted seven studies comparing a tricyclic, to an ‘active’ placebo, ie one with a side effect, and in six out of the seven there was no difference in outcomes.


But Prozac PR had been building up big time, read how Eli Lilly,’s Dr John Virapen, secured this blockbuster drug, and then turned whistle blower, and wrote the best seller ‘Side effect death: corruption in the pharmaceutical industry”.


But Eli Lilly’s sales hype and marketing, did not bear up to independent scrutiny.

Arif Khan reviewed the data submitted to the Federal Drug Agency for 7 SSRIs, and concluded symptoms were reduced by 42% by tricycles, 41% by SSRIs, and 31% in the placebo group.

As with second generation atypical antipsychotics, the new ‘wonder drugs’ were no more efficient than the old ones.

A review of Erick Turner from Oregon Health and Science University, of FDA data for 12 anti depressants approved between 1987 and 2004, showed 36 of the 74 trials, had failed to show any statistical benefit, and there were as many trials that had produced negative, or questionable results, as positive ones.

In 2008 Irving Kirsch at University of Hull, found that in trials of Prozac, Effexor, Serzone, and Paxil, symptoms in those medicated, dropped 9.6 points on the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression, versus 7.8 points for the placebo group.

NICE states a 3 point difference, is needed to demonstrate, a ‘clinically significant benefit’, this was 1.8.

In 2009 The British Journal of Psychiatry stated there was ‘limited valid evidence’ for the use of the drugs.


A group of European psychiatrists affiliated with the World Health Organisation conducted a review of Paxil’s clinical data, and concluded that ‘among adults with moderate to severe major depression’, this popular SSRI, was not superior to placebo in terms of overall treatment effectiveness and acceptability.


Yet our political cross party consensus, this year recommends, that even more of our NHS budget be spent on medicating us with these ‘mood enhancers’.




The Antipsychotic Scandal- Effect on Mind and Body.

As even psychosis has no pathology, and, there is no evidence, that any mental disorder is caused by a chemical imbalance in our brains , what effect do drugs have ?

What permanent damage, do they cause to our brains and bodies ?

How will the Mental Task force recommendations for even more use of anti psychotics and antidepressants, really affect our health and well being ?

And, why, is our government recommending the use of anti psychotics, in light of the scientific evidence of their effect on the brain and body, side effects, and complete lack of any long term benefit ?

Neuroleptics- Anti psychotics

Risperidol, Thorazine, Haldol, and other first, and second generation anti psychotics, powerfully block dopamine pathways in the brain, and reduce a person’s capacity, to respond emotionally to the world, and also make it harder to physically move around it.

On a pathological level, neuroleptics, change the brain’s chemistry, and shrink its volume.

The brain compensates, for the drug induced dopamine block, by producing an increased density, in its dopamine receptors.

Studies have shown, this pathological change, increases a person’s biological vulnerability to psychosis, as schizophrenics treated with neuroleptics, have more severe psychotic symptoms, and relapses, when the drug is withdrawn, than, do those, who have never been treated with anti psychotics.

Philip Seeman published a paper recently, showing both second, and first generation atypical anti psychotics, induce this ‘dopamine super sensitivity’.

And Martin Harrow’s long-term study, showed patients who stopped taking medications, had markedly better outcomes .

He also reported, that medicated patients, were much more likely, to be psychotic on long-term medication, than those taken off early, and concluded, drug-induced dopamine super sensitivity, was likely, to be the reason for the remarkable difference in outcomes.

This super sensitivity, also stops the actual sedative effect of the anti psychotics over time.

So neuroleptics, change the brain chemistry, appearing to actually create psychotic episodes, in those like the autistic and learning disabled.

This suggests, the chemical imbalance theory, that, increased dopamine, causes psychosis, is wrong.

As once a sensitivity is induced, by anti psychotics, the neurotransmitters, desperate for normal levels of dopamine, change their pathology and become over sensitive, and a first psychotic episode, and/or increased episodes result.

Therefore,  treatment for schizophrenia, appears, to be based on a false premise, created by the pharma industry, out of its apparent strong sedative effects, as it, historically was used as a tranquiliser.

But it adjusts the brains chemistry to require the lost dopamine, by becoming super sensitive to dopamine detection, and, it is this change, resultant upon a deficiency of dopamine, that causes psychosis.

This surely, suggests, the brain needs, the very dopamine, being blocked to function normally.

How does it feel to be medicated ?

Some have described the effect as like a stroke, others a heavy blanket.

Most, cannot describe how they feel, as they are autistic/ learning disabled, institutionalised, and in any event ignored.

They are turned into zombies by powerful neurological chemical suppression.

As far back as 1972, researchers concluded neuroleptics ‘impaired learning’.

In 2005, a large MRI imaging study by Lieberman, showed statistically, significant shrinkage of the brain’s grey matter, in those treated with haloperidol or olanzapine, after only 12 weeks.

Yet school children, are drugged if autistic/ADHD for years.

These researchers, found, in institutions they sat ‘staring vacantly at television’, and in the community lived in ‘virtual solitude’, socially disengaged and unmotivated.

A study by psychiatrist David Healy, of 20 hospital staff, given 5mg droperidol (a haloperidol type),and then required to perform various psychological tests.

Revealed they all felt heavily sedated, and found, physical and mental activity, required a much greater effort.

One said even obtaining a sandwich from a machine, was just too complicated.

They felt disengaged from events around them, demotivated., restless, anxious, and irritated, some so distressed they felt suicidal.

My 9 year old daughter,on Risperidol in her fruit shots, as treatment for her aggression  in fact caused by an undetected poo impaction, cried almost permanently, but, as an autistic, could not describe her misery.

Some also reported, an inability to make judgments, about the effects of the drug, as they found it difficult to identify and describe them, whilst under its influence, so side effects could not be properly ascertained.

Do the benefits outweigh the risks and side effects ?

By the end of the 1970s, the National Institute for Mental Health and leading authority in schizophrenia research William Carpenter, expressed concern, that anti psychotics, might have the perverse effect, over the long-term, of making patients, more biologically vulnerable to psychosis, than they would be, in the normal course of the illness.

This concern was based on an old study by Samuel Bockoven and three new long-term studies, funded by the NIMH.

Additionally, there were growing concerns about the frequency with which, medicated patients were developing tardive dyskinesia.

This led Jonathan Cole, the then head of the NIMH’s Psychopharmacology Service Centre, to write;

“Maintenance Antipsychotic Therapy: Is the Cure Worse than the Disease?”

So after 25 years of studying anti psychotics, researchers came to a terrifying conclusion:

These drugs might in fact, worsen the very symptoms, they were designed to treat, and had devastating side effects.

In the 1990’s the pharmaceutical industry , dealt with this bad PR,  by marketing a new range of  second generation atypicals, which they purported to have better long-term outcomes.

But, there is no scientific evidence that they do, in fact, they appear worse.

And, the first generation ones, particularly Risperidol, continue to be extensively used.

MRI studies by Gur and Andreasen, show both types of atypicals, caused changes in brain volumes, that were associated with a worsening of positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and functional impairment.

And, recent evidence shows, that anti psychotics shrinking of the brain, has grown even more robust in both new and old atypicals

And as mentioned earlier, the dopamine sensitivity, which appears to cause psychosis, is also induced by the new second generation atypicals.

The World Health Organization, in two cross-cultural studies, reported that schizophrenia patients in three developing countries had markedly better outcomes than in the U.S. and other developed countries, and that in those poor countries, only a small percentage of patients—16%—were regularly maintained on the drugs.

Robert Whitaker Explains His Research After Being Pigeonholed As Anti-Medication

See also the millions paid out for the damage and death caused by anti psychotics in the USA.

We also have to consider the physical side effects, of this powerful neurological suppression, particularly over years of medication.

Remember, anti psychotics are only licenced in the UK for psychosis, and short term use for severe behavioural problems.

Despite this, they are prescribed ‘off label’ for bi polar, autism, irritability, self harm and behaviour problems,despite the fact, they can cause permanent psychosis, fits, diabetes and tardive dyskinesia, respiratory and heart conditions.

And, appear to have no measurable benefits.

And worse still, are being promoted by our government’s Mental Health Taskforce.05-nznkjrw

The Myth of the Chemical Cure and the Serotonin/Dopamine Imbalance.



As the cross party Mental Taskforce reported earlier this year;

There has been a transformation in mental health over the last 50 years. Advances in care, the development of anti-psychotic and mood stabilising drugs’


There has been no such ‘transformation.’.

How could there have been, in light of ours, and America’s epidemic ?

The East and Third world, do not have widespread mental illness and their patients recover.

50 years ago ,the few ‘mad’ were diagnosed psychotic  and institutionalised , given ECT ,a lobotomy, and/or anti psychotic drugs ,which served as major tranquilisers and chemical lobotomy.

Now, by contrast, 1 in 15 USA citizens at 18, are diagnosed with one of  now 375, mainly ‘conduct’ disorders, created largely by the pharmaceutical industry.

1 in 10 children, and 1 in 3 teens are now according to our government ‘mentally disordered’.

And mere developmental disorders, like intellectual impairment, and autism, are now categorised, as mental disorders and medicated.

All this has made the pharmaceutical industry, the UK’s third largest industry, eating into a quarter of our NHS budget.

But these drugs and diagnoses, have not improved the outcomes for mental health suffers.

Instead, the learning disabled/autistic/ mentally ‘disordered’, are sought out, institutionalised, and medicated for life under the MHA and MCA by section, or court order.And 3 a day die needlessly, without independent investigation ,if any.

In 1955 in the USA , there were 267,000 schizophrenics, today there are 2.4 million suffering a psychotic disorder.

And the Mental Taskforce Report this year, was in sharp contrast, to ten years ago, when the then Health Minister Lord Warner warned;

“…I have some concerns that sometimes we do, as a society, wish to put labels on things which are just part and parcel of the human condition”.

Advances in care, the development of anti-psychotic and mood stabilising drugs’

The government’s intention, to give mental health parity with physical health, appears to want to improve the physical health of the mentally disabled.

But the reality is that their physical problems are not being picked up, as medical examinations, and tests, are costly and difficult, requiring ketamine, deprivation of liberty restraint, extra hospital facilities and staff, and not, therefore, profitable.

But the government, does not intend to change this appalling neglect, as there is no profit in it.

This sound bite parity, instead, eludes to treating our brains, as if they were just another part of our body.

With 100 billion neurons, 150 trillion synapses and neurotransmitter pathways, the brain is almost infinitely complex.

And modern neuroscience admits, poorly understood

Yet, our government intends to medicalise our minds, emotions, our very humanity, as if it were any other part of our body.

We know insulin cures diabetes, antibiotics infection, but mental ‘disorders’ are largely man made, and unless due to some physical assault/decease, have no pathology, or even detection, and therefore, cannot be, if at all, medicated.

But amazingly, the  psychiatric drugs used to cure, a deemed malfunctioning, infinitely complex brain, appear to be based on an imbalance of just two chemicals- dopamine and serotonin .

And,  more astonishing, even if there were proof, that chemical imbalances, do cause mental ‘diseases’, no one knows, how much of any particular chemical, a  brain needs to function normally, so adjustments are blind.

This imbalance, was first propondered by Schildkraut and Jacques Van Rossum, in respect to sufferers of depression in 1965..

Yet even they stated in their paper;

“[this hypothesis is] at best a reductionistic oversimplification of a very complex biological state.’

Yet, this went on to form, effectively, the basis of psychiatry, and the treatment of all mental disorders.

Depression was caused by seronergic neurons releasing too little serotonin into the synaptic gap making the serotonegic pathways underactive.

Antidepressants, brought these serotonin levels up to normal, curing the depression.

Schizophrenia was caused by overactive dopaminergic pathways.

Anti psychotics put a brake on these, appearing to alleviate hallucinations and voices.

But in 1969, Yale researcher Malcom Bowers, was the first person to report on whether depressed patients, actually did have low levels of serotonin metabolites (5-HIAA) in their cerebrospinal fluid.

In a study of eight people, his results showed that 5-HIAA levels were slightly lower, but not “significantly” so.

In 1974, he tried again – this time finding that depressed patients who had not been exposed to antidepressants had perfectly normal 5-HIAA levels.

Suggesting that anti depressants per se, actually overtime might  cause a drop in levels.

In 1974, Joseph Mendels and Alan Frazer revisited the evidence, that  led Schildkraut to suggest his theory, and found, that the drug he had tested didn’t reliably reduce depression.

In fact, it actually lifted the spirits of some people.

And, when researchers, gave patients other serotonin-depleting drugs, they didn’t cause depression.

Then in 1975, Marie Asberg, reported that 20 of the 68 depressed patients they tested, suffered from low levels of 5-HIAA.

This, at last,  appeared to be the confirmation of Schildkraut’s theory,  the pharmaceutical industry was desperate for.

However, researchers noticed a flaw, as Asberg had failed to note,  that even though 29% of her depressed patients, had low 5-HIAA levels, 25% of her normal group did too.

There was a bell curve for each group (normal and depressed), and both showed about the same variability.

And,  worse still 24% of the depressed group, actually had high levels of serotonin.

Numerous follow-up studies continued to disprove the theory.

Causing the Essential Psychopharmacology textbook to state;

“There is no clear and convincing evidence that deficiency accounts for depression; that is, there is no ‘real’ monoamine deficit”.

But Ely Lille, was determined to make billions out of the chemical imbalance myth, and marketed it voraciously, and in 1988, Prozac//fluoxetine hit the shelves.

A pharmaceutical manager at Ely Lille, Dr John Virapen, has written a book exposing this corruption.
‘ Side effect death: corruption in the pharmaceutical industry”


And despite all this, antidepressant use has doubled in the last decade
Last year the NHS spent 285 millions on 61 million prescriptions in the UK.

So this must warrant the most lucrative quackery ever marketed.


And graphically illustrates, the awesome power, PR, and state and professional influence  of the pharmaceutical industry.

Ronald Pies, Editor in Chief Emeritus of Psychiatric Times – one of the most widely read psychiatric publications. Summed it up;

‘I am not one who easily loses his temper, but I confess to experiencing markedly increased limbic activity whenever I hear someone proclaim, “Psychiatrists think all mental disorders are due to a chemical imbalance!”

In the past 30 years, I don’t believe I have ever heard a knowledgeable, well-trained psychiatrist make such a preposterous claim, except perhaps to mock it.

On the other hand, the “chemical imbalance” trope has been tossed around a great deal by opponents of psychiatry, who mendaciously attribute the phrase to psychiatrists themselves. And, yes — the “chemical imbalance” image has been vigorously promoted by some pharmaceutical companies, often to the detriment of our patients’ understanding. The legend of the “chemical imbalance” should be consigned to the dust-bin of ill-informed and malicious caricatures’

This dangerous myth, has now made trillions for the pharmaceutical industry and largely justifies the psychiatric profession.

For the latest experts dispelling the myth read here.

But in the Western world, it is still accepted and promoted, that such imbalances exist and cause a pathology in the brain, that can be fixed..

If depression, and schizophrenia cannot be detected, as a pathology, how can ADHD, ASD, Bipolar, Anxiety or PTSD ?






Mental Services 9 billion a year bonanza. ‘Those whom the government wish to profit from, they first make mad’




It is strange indeed, that in our times of unprecedented personal and national debt, austerity and NHS crisis, our government’s main priority is our mental health.

So much so, it is now a ‘cross-party, cross-society consensus’.

But, it appears this continued concern for our ‘wellbeing’ and ‘happiness’, may be anything but, altruistic.

Earlier this year The Mental Health Taskforce made recommendations;

Public attitudes towards mental health are improving, and there is a growing commitment among communities, workplaces, schools and within government to change the way we think about it. There is now a cross-party, cross-society consensus on what needs to change and a real desire to shift towards prevention and transform NHS care’.


Apparently, a quarter of us, suffer from a mental disorder in silence.

So how do they know we do ?

And, even more, are ‘at risk’, if the state does not intervene.

Local communities will be supported to develop effective Mental Health Prevention plans for those at risk’

‘Those at risk’, are the old, poor, pregnant, minority groups, teenagers and children, 1 in 10 of whom, suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder. How reliable this information is, or how it was ascertained, is unclear.


Teenagers, particularly girls, are suffering, and at risk.

All national media covers this new mental health epidemic.


Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness

Natasha Bevan, co founder of Body Gossip, set up in 2014, provides self- esteem and mental health courses in schools.

She was appointed Mental Health Campion,  and produced a report, that 1 in 3 school teens have mental health disorders.

She purports to act for them, and their families, demanding similar courses, to those, her organisation provides in all schools. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natasha_Devon

Who approves such courses, and, on what basis, and why are they deemed education ?

Body Gossip, is a registered charity, but the Charity Commission, does not reveal details of their accounts.

The two trustees appear to be a research academic sociologist and a psychologist


Ms Bevan was sacked as Campion/Tsar,  just before she released her report,  appeared on Channel 4 news this week, and, was featured  in  national press, complaining government were not taking this issue seriously.

All good PR both for the government agenda and her organisation .

So social need, being a teenager, and even childhood, are, made potential signs of  a mental disorder

Even the homeless are hounded, on the national news, not to be housed, there is no profit in that, but to be assessed for mental ‘disorders’.

Since release of The Taskforce Report, there has been a veritable explosion of mental health issues  in all media, mental disorders are everywhere- students over top up fees, academics,  Brexit  anxiety.https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/may/14/teenage-mental-health-crisis-doctors

A terrifying, judgmental denormalisation of natural concerns, research dubious totalitarian push,  to create a sinister, insidious, mental epidemic, resulting in a dangerous, unprecedented, unchecked revolution, in health and social care, and the state’s control of the individual’s behaviour, medication, social interactions, and health for profit.

A market is being created. And is more likely, to be based on self interest, rather than concern and paternalism, and who will protect the  vulnerable ?

Big Pharma is behind it all and doctors show 80% of their ‘results’ are manipulated.http://www.naturalnews.com/055752_Big_Pharma_medical_research_science_fraud.html#ixzz4NzZQmOkt

Citizens, teenagers and children can be mentally labelled, for often normal emotions or reactions to our dire, isolating, ruthless society, and poor education system.

And, the state, and its many agents, and even on message citizens, are  tasked to survey and judge, our mental health and decide what ‘normal’ behaviour is.

To enable this, we are told the stigma of mental health has been removed, allowing us like Alistair Campbell, Stephen Fry, Ruby Wax and soap characters, to discuss our ‘mental’ problems.

And provide a privatised NHS, with potentially 16 million customers, not including those ‘at risk’, who may never suffer this subjective mental issue.

So what might be the real reason for our government and now a cross party, cross society concern ?

Already 22.8% of the NHS spend is on mental services, compared to 15.9% for cancer and 16.2% for cardiovascular disease.

NHS England spent £8.5bn in 2013-14 and an estimated £8.62bn in 2014-15.

And the government is investing a further £1bn a year to deliver the mental health taskforce’s recommendations.http://www.communitycare.co.uk/2016/02/15/mental-healths-billion-pound-question-wheres-taskforce-money-coming/

So private/charitable mental services, can get their hands on over a quarter of the total NHS budget.

It will make them happy, but what about us What do we get for this 9 billion a year spend ?

The recommendations do nothing to change our 30 year +, deplorable service, except to provide more counsellors, liason officers and suicide prevention teams to harvest customers.

And alarmingly, but is not surprising, in view of the governments connections to the pharmaceutical industry

This expensive transformation relies on the increased use of anti-psychotics and mood stabilising drugs.

As The Taskforce states;

There has been a transformation in mental health over the last 50 years. Advances in care, the development of anti-psychotic and mood stabilising drugs’

‘Prevention and Transform NHS care ‘ would appear a barely veiled push, to spend money  seeking out,  as many as possible- old, children, teenagers to drug, even though some of these people are only at risk.

Social medicalisation .

As excepting for vigilance in every part of society,  unethically treating  those ‘at risk’, who might never develop a mental disorder, and, the use of more anti-psychotics and anti depressants, nothing has changed..

Mental health, as an asset light service with few measurable, let alone measured outcomes, is already the most lucrative part of the NHS.

And as our present deplorable services show, throwing money, now already 22.8% of NHS budget at mental health, without accountability and measured outcomes has already proved disastrous, but very lucrative.

See the recycled profits of St Andrews Healthcare allowing its chief a £375,000 salary in 2010.

One autistic boy’s ‘care’ is worth £12,500 a week

Yet this ‘treatment’ has not improved the patients, quite the reverse, they, particularly the autistic are being made much much worse, institutionalised for life and dying in swarms.

A corporate state monopoly service’s duty, is to sustainability and profit, recycled or not, and successful treatment can be counter productive, if there is no competition and effectively no regulation.

No one knows how our minds work and  without measured control based outcomes, psychiatry and psychology are largely Emperors Clothes and conjecture.

See the Myth of Mental Illness written by a psychiatrist of 50 years standing.

And  deterioration can be blamed on the ‘disorder’ per se and ironically used to validate the ‘disorder’

There is also evidence that anti-psychotics can cause psychosis and seizures..

And how can the consumer complain, or sue, as unlike USA we do not have an insurance based/contractual causes of action.

As many disorders, currently at 375, as wanted can be created.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals

Each  disorder can be treated with a ‘magic bullet’ drug that is why the pharmaceutical industry largely created them and promotes the manual.

The Manual opens with a four-page colour spread of different drugs listed under trade names.

And these ‘disorders’ can usefully, be attributed to different facets of a pathological, or development disorder ie Autism can lead to diagnoses of ADHD,OD,OCD,..

Research by charities and Universities paid for by government give flesh to the latest created ‘disorder’.

Self harm, as a separate disorder, was unheard of,  and bi polar/manic depression was a severe mental condition of  psychotic highs and lows, but is now extended by  government funded research to mood swings.

Autism and learning disability have been similarly widen by adeptive  and ever vaguer assessment criteria, and then recently  made mental disorders.

There have even been recent suggestions for the creation of a radicalism disorder Mentalising not just social but political dissidence.


ADHD, Autism, Behaviour Disorders are diagnosed in children. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/28/books/review/adhd-nation-alan-schwarz.html?ref=oembed&_r=0

The very serious side effects of medication are ignored.

And often treated with a different magic bullet.

GPs, and psychiatrists are paid by prescription and intervention and are employees under strict codes of conduct, in now a commercially aware industry, and often forced to ignore or subvert ‘ First do no harm’.

The eventual monopoly privatisation of mental health services will boost our economic growth but at a huge cost to the deficit.

And to truth, individual autonomy and the nation’s sanity.